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There are three different types of mapping used for the purpose of cache memory which are as follows: Direct mapping, Associative mapping, and Set-Associative mapping. These are explained below.

  1. Direct Mapping –
    The simplest technique, known as direct mapping, maps each block of main memory into only one possible cache line. or
    In Direct mapping, assigne each memory block to a specific line in the cache. If a line is previously taken up by a memory block when a new block needs to be loaded, the old block is trashed. An address space is split into two parts index field and a tag field. The cache is used to store the tag field whereas the rest is stored in the main memory. Direct mapping`s performance is directly proportional to the Hit ratio.i = j modulo m where i=cache line number j= main memory block number m=number of lines in the cacheFor purposes of cache access, each main memory address can be viewed as consisting of three fields. The least significant w bits identify a unique word or byte within a block of main memory. In most contemporary machines, the address is at the byte level. The remaining s bits specify one of the 2s blocks of main memory. The cache logic interprets these s bits as a tag of s-r bits (most significant portion) and a line field of r bits. This latter field identifies one of the m=2r lines of the cache.